The Recorder is a woodwind musical instrument of the flute type. It is cylindrical, with openings at both ends, and typically six tone holes along its body. It is made of a variety of materials (reed, wood, bronze, iron, bone, plastic) and comes in numerous sizes (from 15 to 85 cm). Recorders measuring up to 50 cm usually have 6 tone holes at the front, at an equal distance to one another, or 6 holes at the front and one at the back, for the thumb. Longer recorders, measuring 60 to 85 cm, and known as “tzamara” in Epirus, have 7 tone holes at the front, or 7 holes at the front and 1 at the back. Apart from the finger holes, the tzamara also has additional holes at the bottom part of its body, which are used to improve acoustics.

The Tsabouna is the island version of the Greek bagpipes. Its mainland equivalent is the Gaida. The instrument’s name varies from island to island: in Andros it is known as Sabouna, in Crete as Askomandoura, and in Ikaria as Tsabounofylaka, to name but a few. The Tsabouna is made by the musician himself, and consists of three parts: the bag, the mouthpiece and the device that produces sound, the Tsabouna. The bag (aski or touloumi) is made of goat hide. The animal is skinned, and salt is then applied to the inside of the hide, which is rolled up and left to “tighten” for several days. The fleece is then cut down to about 1 – 1.5 cm, and the skin is rinsed. It is subsequently tied at the neck and the back (rear legs and tail), with the fleece on the inside.

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The Trombone is a wind instrument of the trumpet family. It consists of a cylindrical tube, a mouthpiece and a slide, which the musician moves back and forth. This action adjusts the length of the tube, and produces the Trombone’s characteristic glissando sound. Due to its unique construction, the Trombone is the one wind instrument able to produce all tones on the sound spectrum. The Trombone was created around 1450, when the first Trumpet with an adjustable tube made its appearance in Burgundy. By the 16th century, Trombones were made in five different ranges, from high to contrabass. From the late 19th century onwards, the instrument’s triumphant and majestic style made an alto/tenor/bass trio of Trombones a standard addition to orchestras.

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The Trumpet is an aerophone musical instrument with a metal mouthpiece, which belongs in the family of brass wind instruments. The Trumpet, as we know it today, first appeared during the late 18th or the early 19th century. Its earliest predecessor is the Cornet, made out of wood or animal horns, which first appeared in Ancient Egypt and was in use until the time of the Roman Empire. As the instrument could not play all notes of a scale, a mechanism that helped produce all notes was added during the late 18th century, while piston valves (initially two and later three) were added in the early 19th century, enabling the trumpet to produce all chromatic sounds on a scale.

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The Zournas descended from the flute, the quintessential wind instrument of ancient Greek music. It is also known as Karamouza or Pipiza, and is classed as an aerophone. It is made out of wood and cane. Its musical range spans one octave and two notes. It is a double reed instrument, like the Oboe, and produces a sharp and high-pitched sound, as a result. It comes in a variety of sizes (from 22 to 60 cm); shorter models are made in Western Roumeli and the Peloponnese, while longer ones generally come from Macedonia. They are typically played in pairs, one for melody and the other for the drone. The Zournas is paired with the Daouli to create the (main) traditional musical band (“zygia”) of the Greek mainland.

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The Clarinet is a wind musical instrument. It consists of a long cylindrical bore with six basic tone holes in the front and one in the back. It also features a series of keys that cover or uncover the remaining tone holes along the instrument’s body. Sound is produced by means of a vibrating reed in the mouthpiece, which is located at the top end of the Clarinet. The instrument typically consists of five parts, which are – from top to bottom: the mouthpiece, the barrel joint, the upper joint, the lower joint, and the bell. It is made of wood, most commonly African hardwood or Honduran rosewood, and the reed is typically a piece of wild cane, cut down to the appropriate size. The Clarinet resulted from the evolution of earlier, similar instruments.

The Euphonium, an aerophone, is classed as a Horn. The Horn family of instruments originates from the prehistorical animal horn and the hunting or postal horn, which consisted of coiled metal tubes. The Euphonium also belongs in the flugehorn family, a distinct sub-category of Horns with piston valves. Flugehorns first appeared in Austria, the early 19th century, when Horns were fitted with rotary piston valves. Their bores are conical and wide, producing a full and smooth sound. The family consists (in descending order, by pitch) of: the Flugehorn, the Alto Horn, the Tenor Horn (egg- or Tuba-shaped), the Baritone or Euphonium in B flat (egg- or Tuba-shaped), the Bass Tuba, the Double Tuba (a combination of Bass and Contrabass Tuba, with a rotary valve), and the Contrabass Tuba.

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The Gaida, also known as Gayda, Gaita or Tulum, is a type of bagpipes. It consists of a bag, a mouthpiece and a part that produces sound. The latter consists of two separate pipes: the melody chanter, which is small, includes finger holes, and produces the melody, and the drone, which is longer and without holes, and produces a single note to establish tonality. The Gaida is often confused with the Tsabouna, but it differs because of its additional (third) pipe that is used as the bass drone. The drone is a long pipe (60-70 cm), thus establishing the tonic an octave lower than the melody. The Gaida is used in Thrace, Macedonia and across the Balkans. It is typically made by the musician himself, out of goat or – in rare cases – sheep hide.

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