Defi (Tambourine)
The Defi (Tambourine), also known as Dayere, is a frame drum with jingles, and is classed as a membranophone musical instrument. Its frame is made wood, clay or (nowadays) plastic, the drumhead of animal skin, and the jingles are thin plates of metal. Its diameter is between 25 and 40 cm and its height around 5-10 cm. References to similar percussion instruments can be traced back to Ancient Greece, one of them being the tymbanon, the instrument of Dionysian worship and, notably, one of the few musical instruments women were allowed to play. Related instruments, such as the Seistron or Plithia, also existed during the Byzantine era. The Defi is typically used as accompaniment, as its rhythm complements most melodic instruments.

The Toubeleki, also known as Tarabouka, Darabouka or Stamna, is a rhythm instrument, commonly found in Northern Greece, Thrace and the Eastern Aegean islands (Mytilini and Chios). It consists of a clay frame and a drumhead made of animal skin. Due to its construction, the Toubeleki produces two basic tones, which the musician reproduces by drumming in the middle or the circumference of the instrument. Both hands are used to play it: one produces louder sounds at the centre of the drumhead, while the other produces weaker sounds at the circumference. It is usually hung from the left shoulder and propped under the musician’s armpit, or supported between their legs, when seated. It comes in a variety of sizes, and used to be adorned with various designs.

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The Daouli, also known as Davouli, Tavouli, or Timbano (Drum) is a cylindrical drum with two heads. It belongs in the category of membranophone instruments, and is made of wood, animal skin and string. Its diameter ranges from 25 cm – 1m, and its height from 20 cm – 60 cm. The Daouli is hung from the musician’s left shoulder and played with two “daouloksyla” (Daouli sticks): the one known as “kopanos” is thick and heavy, and held in the right hand, while the other is thinner, and known as “verga” or “vitsa”. The Daouli is usually constructed by the musician himself and, as a result, there are great variations in the instrument’s dimensions, the methods used to process the skin and the way the strings are tied.

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